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J Korean Acad Conserv Dent. 2008 May;33(3):235-245. Korean. Original Article.
Suh HY , Lee IB .
Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Korea.

The aim of this study was to develop a method for measuring the slumping resistance of resin composites and to relate it to the rheological characteristics. Five commercial hybrid composites (Z100, Z250, DenFil, Tetric Ceram, ClearFil) and a nanofill composite (Z350) were used to make disc-shaped specimens of 2 mm thickness. An aluminum mold with square shaped cutting surface was pressed onto the composite discs to make standardized imprints. The imprints were light-cured either immediately (non-slumped) or after waiting for 3 minutes at 25degrees C (slumped). White stone replicas were made and then scanned for topography using a laser 3-D profilometer. Slumping resistance index (SRI) was defined as the ratio of the groove depth of the slumped specimen to that of the non-slumped specimen. The pre-cure viscoelasticity of each composite was evaluated by an oscillatory shear test and normal stress was measured by a squeeze test using a rheometer. Flow test was also performed using a flow tester. Correlation analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the viscoelastic properties and the SRI. SRI varied between the six materials (Z100 < DenFil < Z250 < ClearFil < Tetric Ceram < Z350). The SRI was strongly correlated with the viscous (loss) shear modulus G' but not with the loss tangent. Also, slumping resistance was more closely related to the resistance to shear flow than to the normal stress. Slumping tendency could be quantified using the imprint method and SRI. The index may be applicable to evaluate the clinical handling characteristics of composites.

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