The purpose of this study was to evaluate the etching effects and bond strength of total etching and self-etching adhesive system on unground enamel using scanning electron microscopy and microtensile bond strength test. The buccal coronal unground enamel from human extracted molars were prepared using low-speed diamond saw. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (group SM), Clearfil SE Bond (group SE), or Adper Prompt L-Pop (group LP) were applied to the prepared teeth, and the blocks of resin composite (Filtek Z250) were built up incrementally. Resin tag formation was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, after removal of enamel surface by acid dissolution and dehydration. For microtensile bond strength test, resin-bonded teeth were sectioned to give a bonded surface area of 1mm2. Microtensile bond strength test was perfomed. The results of this study were as follows. 1. A definite etching pattern was observed in Scotchbond Multi-Purpose group. 2. Self-etching groups were characterized as shallow and irregular etching patterns. 3. The results (mean) of microtensile bond strength were SM; 26.55 MPa, SE; 18.15 MPa, LP; 15.57 MPa. SM had significantly higher microtensile bond strength than SE and PL (p < 0.05), but there was no significant differance between SE and PL.