This study evaluated the microleakage and interfacial gap between enamel and composite resin under the dry and wet condition of the enamel surface. V shaped class 5 cavities were prepared on the occlusal portion of extracted human molars. Samples were divided into three groups: D group (air dry for 10-15 s), BD group (blot dry with moist cotton pellet), and DR group (air dry for 10-15 s and rewet with Aqua-Prep F for 20 s). Cavities were filled using Aelitefil composite resin after applied One-Step. Microleakage was tested by 2% methylene blue dye solution and the data were statistically analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Also Enamel-resin interface was observed under SEM. Group BD showed statistically lower microleakage than group D (p < 0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference between group BD and DR (p > 0.05). At the enamel-resin interface, group D showed the gap of 2 microm thickness, but group BD and DR showed close adaptation. In conclusion, the use of blot dry and rewetting agent (Aqua-Prep F) resulted in decreased microleakage and improved adhesion between enamel and resin when using One-Step.