BACKGROUND: Recently, the prevalence of colorectal cancer related with metabolic syndrome is increasing in Korea. The aim of this study was to reveal a relationship between components of metabolic syndrome and the development of colon polyp. METHODS: Among the subjects who visited a health promotion center of one university hospital and underwent colonoscopic examination from February 2010 to February 2011, a total of 1,630 (males 1,156, females 474) asymptomatic adults were included for the study. Sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol levels and the presence of colorectal polyps were measured. Alcohol consumption, smoking and exercise were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined by criteria of 2004 American Heart Association/Updated NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III. RESULTS: The prevalence of colon polyps and metabolic syndrome was 21.7% and 16.0% respectively among study subjects. After adjustment for sex and age, metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR]=1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.82, P=0.031) and waist circumference (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, P=0.009) were associated with increased risk of colorectal polyps. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome and waist circumference were associated with increased risk of colon polyps in asymptomatic Korean adults.