OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between bone mineral density (BMD) and the risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean postmenopausal women who were enrolled in a health promotion center of a university hospital from January, 2007 to December, 2009. METHODS: The risk factors of atherosclerosis and CVD were a current smoker, no regular exercise, obesity, abdominal obesity, hypercholesterolemia, low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Metabolic syndrome was used as an endpoint of the risk factors for atherosclerosis and CVD. The BMD measures of the subjects were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data on their lifestyle, their current medical diseases and their medications was collected during a personal interview with using a questionnaire at the initial examination. Height, body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and the serum lipid profiles were measured. RESULTS: In the adjusted analysis with including age and the body mass index, blood pressure and the triglyceride level had a close correlation with BMD (P<0.05). After adjustment for age, waist circumference, systolic- and diastolic blood pressure, BMD revealed significant correlation with the presence of metabolic syndrome (P=0.037). CONCLUSION: BMD measures in Korean postmenopausal women with no prior history of cardiovascular disease were inversely related to metabolic syndrome, independent of age, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride as risk factors for atherosclerosis and CVD.