Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral mucosal disorder for which no curative treatment is available. We previously reported that decreased Streptococcus salivarius and increased Acinetobacter johnsonii on the oral mucosa are associated with RAS risk. The purpose of this study was to identify antibiotics that selectively inhibit A. johnsonii but minimally inhibit oral mucosal commensals. S. salivarius KCTC 5512, S. salivarius KCTC 3960, A. johnsonii KCTC 12405, Rothia mucilaginosa KCTC 19862, and Veillonella dispar KCOM 1864 were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test using amoxicillin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, clindamycin, and metronidazole in liquid culture. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was defined as the concentration that inhibits 90% of growth. Only gentamicin presented a higher MIC for A. johnsonii than MICs for S. salivarius and several oral mucosal commensals. Interestingly, the growth of S. salivarius increased 10~200% in the presence of sub-MIC concentrations of gentamicin, which was independent of development of resistance to gentamicin. In conclusion, gentamicin may be useful to restore RAS-associated imbalance in oral microbiota by selectively inhibiting the growth of A. johnsonii but enhancing the growth of S. salivarius.