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Int J Oral Biol. 2016 Dec;41(4):253-262. Korean. Original Article.
Park BI , Jung YW , Kim YH , Lee SM , Kwon LS , Kim KJ , An SY , Choi NY , You YO .
Department of Oral Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea.
RAPHA PROPOILS Co, Jeonju, Korea.
Department of Oral Microbiology & Immunology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea.
Department of Pediatric dentistry, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea.
Department of Home Economics Education, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea.

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is one of the most important bacteria in the formation of dental plaque and dental caries. S. mutans adheres to an acquired pellicle formed on the tooth surface, and aggregates with many oral bacteria. It initiates plaque formation by synthesizing glucan from sucrose, which is catalyzed by glucosyltransferases. Propolis is a resinous mixture produced by honeybees, by mixing saliva and beeswax with secretions gathered from wood sap and flower pollen. Bees prevent pathogenic invasions by coating the propolis to the outer and inner surface of the honeycomb. Propolis has traditionally been used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, asthma and dermatitis. We investigated the inhibitory effects of propolis ethanol extract on biofilm formation and gene expression of S. mutans. The biofilm formation of S. mutans was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. We observed that the extract of propolis had an inhibitory effect on the formation of S. mutans biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.2 mg/ml. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of biofilm formation, such as gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA and vicR of S. mutans, was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. The ethanol extract of propolis showed concentration dependent growth inhibition of S. mutans, and significant inhibition of acid production at concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, compared to the control group. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of propolis inhibits gene expression related to biofilm formation in S. mutans

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