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Int J Oral Biol. 2014 Jun;39(2):97-105. English. Original Article.
Kim YH , Kang JM , Kim IR , Lee BY , Yoon JY , Kim CH , Park BS .
Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Korea.
Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Korea.

The aim of this study was to determine the beneficial effect of propofol on human keratinocytes that have undergone hypoxia reoxygenation (H/R) injury and to investigate whether autophagy is associated with the protective mechanism. Thus, we evaluated how propofol influences the intracellular autophagy and apoptosis during the H/R process in the HaCaT cells. The cultured human keratinocyte cells were exposed to 24 h of hypoxia (5% CO2, 1% O2, 94% N2) followed by 12 h of reoxygenation (5% CO2, 21% O2, 74% N2). The experiment was divided into 4 groups: (1) Control=Normoxia ; (2) H/R=Hypoxia Reoxygenation ; (3) PPC+H/R=Propofol Preconditioning+Hypoxia Reoxygenation; (4) 3-MA+PPC+H/R=3-MA-Methyladenine+Propofol Preconditioning+Hypoxia Reoxygenation. In addition, Western blot analysis was performed to identify the expression of apoptotic pathway parameters, including Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3 involved in mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Autophagy was determined by fluorescence microscopy, MDC staining, AO staining, and western blot. The H/R produced dramatic injuries in keratinocyte cells. In our study, the viability of Propofol in H/R induced HaCaT cells was first studied by MTT assay. The treatment with 25, 50, and 100 microM Propofol in H/R induced HaCaT cells enhanced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner and 100 microM was the most effective dose. The Atg5, Becline-1, LC3-II, and p62 were elevated in PPC group cells, but H/R-induced group showed significant reduction in HaCaT cells. The Atg5 were increased when autophagy was induced by Propofol, and they were decreased when autophagy was suppressed by 3-MA. These data provided evidence that propofol preconditioning induced autophagy and reduced apoptotic cell death in an H/R model of HaCaT cells, which was in agreement with autophagy playing a very important role in cell protection.

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