This study investigated the genes involved in the differentiation of odontoblasts derived from human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). hDPSCs isolated from human tooth pulp were validated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). After odontogenic induction, hDPSCs were analyzed investigated by Alizaline red-S staining, ALP assay, ALP staining and RT-PCR. Differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) was performed to screen differentially expressed genes involved in the differentiation of hDPSCs. By FACS analysis, the stem cell markers CD24 and CD44 were found to be highly expressed in hDPSCs. When hDPSCs were treated with agents such as beta-glycerophosphate (beta-GP) and ascorbic acid (AA), nodule formation was exhibited within six weeks. The ALP activity of hDPSCs was found to elevate over time, with a detectable up-regulation at 14 days after odontogenic induction. RT-PCR analysis revealed that dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and osteocalcin (OC) expression had increased in a time-dependent manner in the induction culture. Through the use of DD-PCR, several genes were differentially detected following the odontogenic induction. These results suggest that these genes may possibly be linked to a variety of cellular process during odontogenesis. Furthermore, the characterization of these regulated genes during odontogenic induction will likely provide valuable new insights into the functions of odontoblasts.