The effects of the an immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA), on the salivary gland are largely unknown, even though clinical trials for the stimulation of salivation using CsA have been attempted. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is known to be a binding protein for CsA. CypA has cell proliferation and tissue matrix change activities. In our present study, the presence of CypA in the gland and effects of CsA on CypA expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and RT-PCR analyses. CypA was immunohistochemically detected in various kinds of ducts in the submandibular glands of Sprague Dawley rats. The CypA mRNA level was highest at postnatal day 1 and gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner up to adulthood. The expression of CypA increased after a 10 day subcutaneous administration of CsA in postnatal day 1 rats. Surgical sections of the chorda-lingual nerve with impaired salivation showed no changes in CypA expression. A cell proliferation assay using PCNA anti-serum showed increased cell division following CsA treatment. These results suggest that CsA and CypA may act on ductal cells to regulate saliva composition rather than salivation levels.