Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the major periodontal pathogens, is implicated in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. The initial stages of periodontal inflammation are accompanied by vascular hyperpermeability. In our present study, we report that the P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increases the mRNA expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a major inducer of vascular permeability, in vascular endothelial cells. P. gingivalis LPS also stimulated the induction of IL-8 secretion in endothelial cells. The P. gingivalis LPS-induced expression of IL-8 was primarily modulated by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). P. gingivalis LPS significantly enhanced the vascular permeability both in vitro and in vivo, and a blockade of the IL-8 receptor decreased the P. gingivalis LPS-induced vascular permeability. Taken together, these results suggest that P. gingivalis LPS increases vascular permeability through the NF-kappaB-dependent production of IL-8 in vascular endothelial cells.