Chios gum mastic (CGM) is produced from Pistiacia lentiscus L var chia, which grows only on Chios Island in Greece. CGM is a kind of resin extracted from the stem and leaves, has been used for many centuries in many Mediterranean countries as a dietary supplement and folk medicine for stomach and duodenal ulcers. CGM is known to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in some cancer cells. This study was undertaken to investigate the alteration of the cell cycle and induction of apoptosis following CGM treatment of HL-60 cells. The viability of the HL-60 cells was assessed using the MTT assay. Hoechst staining and DNA electrophoresis were employed to detect HL-60 cells undergoing apoptosis. Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, FACScan flow cytometry, MMP activity and proteasome activity analyses were also employed. CGM treatment of HL-60 cells was found to result in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability and apoptotic cell death. Tested HL-60 cells showed a variety of apoptotic manifestations and induced the downregulation of G1 cell cycle-related proteins. Taken collectively, our present findings demonstrate that CGM strongly induces G1 cell cycle arrest via the modulation of cell cycle-related proteins, and also apoptosis via proteasome, mitochondrial and caspase cascades in HL-60 cells. Hence, we provide evidence that a natural product, CGM could be considered as a novel therapeutic for human leukemia.