For hand surgeons, the treatment of children with congenital differences of the upper extremity is challenging because of the diverse spectrum of conditions encountered, but the task is also rewarding because it provides surgeons with the opportunity to impact a child's growth and development. An ideal classification of congenital differences of the upper extremity would reflect the full spectrum of morphologic abnormalities and encompass etiology, a guide to treatment, and provide prognoses. In this report, I review current classification systems and discuss their contradictions and limitations. In addition, I present a modified classification system and provide treatment principles. As our understanding of the etiology of congenital differences of the upper extremity increases and as experience of treating difficult cases accumulates, even an ideal classification system and optimal treatment strategies will undoubtedly continue to evolve.