PURPOSE: Biphasic calcium phosphates have been of great interest recently. Mixing adequate ratios of hydroxyapatite(HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate(beta-TCP) allowed to control the resorption rate without distorting its osteoconductive property. This study evaluated the bone formation effect of newly developed biphasic calcium phosphate(BCP) in calvarial defect of rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 male New Zealand rabbits were used. Four defects with 8mm in diameter were created on each animal. BCP with HA/beta-TCP ratio of 7:3 and particle size of 0.5~1.0 mm was used as the test group and bovine bone with 0.25~1.0 mm particle size, as the control group. Both test and control group materials were randomly implanted in the calvarial defects and were covered witha polymer membrane. The animals were sacrificed after 12, 24, and 48 weeks of implantation under general euthanasia. Resin blocks were obtained and were stained by masson's trichrome for histological observation. RESULTS: Overall results were uneventful without any defect exposure or inflammation. The amount of new bone formation and bone maturity increased with increase in healing period at both groups. New bone in test group was mostly formed along the material particle surrounded by osteoblasts, and observation of osteoblastic stream was also present. Bone maturity increased as it was closer to thedefect margins. Under the same healing period, the test group showed more bone formation than the control group with more stable bovine bone particles remaining even after 48 weeks, whereas considerable resorption took place in BCP. Almost total defect closure was observed in test group with new bone formation in the central part of the defect. However, limited new bone formation was observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: Within the limits of the study, the present study reveals the newly developed BCP to be a good osteoconductive material. However, further studies are needed to be conducted in a different study model with a larger sample size.