PURPOSE: Recombining bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is usually acquiredfrom high level animals. Though this method is effective, its high cost limits its use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 with protein transduction domain (BMP-2/PTD;TATBMP-2) on bone regeneration. Rat calvarial defect model and osteoblastic differentiation model using MC3T3 cell were used for the purpose of the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MC3T3 cells were cultured until they reached a confluence stage. The cells were treated with 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 500 ng/ml of BMP-2/PTD for 21 days and at the end of the treatment, osteoblastic differentiation was evaluated usingvon Kossa staining. An 8mm, calvarial, critical-size osteotomy defect was created in each of 48 male Spraque-Dawley rats (weight 250~300 g). Three groups of 16 animals each received either BMP-2/PTD (0.05mg/ml) in a collagen carrier, collagen only, or negative surgical control. And each group was divided into 2 and 8 weeks healing intervals. The groups were evaluated by histologic analysis(8 animals/group/healing intervals) RESULT: In osteoblastic differentiation evaluation test, a stimulatory effect of BMP-2/PTD was observed in 10ng/ml of BMP-2/PTD with no observation of dose-dependent manner. The BMP-2/PTD group showed enhanced local bone formation in the rat calvarial defect at 2 weeks. New bone was observed at the defect margin and central area ofthe defect. However, new bone formation was observed only in 50% of animals used for 2weeks. In addition, there was no new bone formation observed at 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicated that BMP-2/PTD(TATBMP-2) have an positive effect on the bone formation in vitro and in vivo. However, further study should be conducted for the reproducibility of the outcomes.