PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to histomorphometrically evaluate the osteoconductivity of a new biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics with fully interconnected microporous structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Osseous defects created in the rabbit calvaria were filled with four different bone graft substitutes. Experimental sites were filled with a new fully interconnected microporous biphasic calcium phosphate with(BCP-2) or without(BCP-1) internal macropore of 400micrometer in diameter. MBCP(Biomatlante, France) and Bio-Oss(Geistlich Pharma, Switzerland) were used as controls in this study. Histomorphometric evaluation was performed at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. RESULT: In histologic evaluation, new bone formation and direct bony contact with the graft particles were observed in all four groups. At 4 weeks, BCP-1(15.5%) and BCP-2(15.5%) groups showed greater amount of newly formed mineralized bone area(NB%) compared to BO(11.4%) and MBCP(10.3%) groups. The amounts of NB% at 8 weeks were greater than those of 4 weeks in all four groups, but there was no statistically significant differences in NB% between the groups. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that new bone substitutes, BCP with interconnected microporous structure and with or without internal macroporous structures, have the osteoconductivity comparable to those of commercially available bone substitutes, MBCP and Bio-Oss.