The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of periodontal ligament regeneration when autotransplantation was used by the periodontal ligament fibroblasts cultured on the acellular dermal matrix in teeth without a periodontal ligament. One minipig was used in this study. The mandibular and maxillary permanent incisors were extracted for the culture of the periodontal ligament cells. The roots of the unextracted teeth were classified into a positive control group, in which the normal periodontal ligament was preserved. The roots of the extracted teeth were divided into the following two groups: The negative control group, in which the periodontal ligament had been removed and the acellular dermal matrix was not applied; and an experimental group, in which the periodontal ligament had been removed and periodontal ligament fibroblast cultured on an acellular dermal matrix was applied. The prepared teeth were transplanted, and completely submerged using physical barrier membranes. The animal was sacrificed 4 weeks after the autotransplant. The transplanted teeth were examined histologically. In this study, the periodontal ligament was normal in the positive control group, and ankylosis was discovered on the denuded root surface in the negative control group. Periodontal ligament-like connective tissue was found adjacent to the denuded root and the new cementum-like layer of hard tissue was formed in the experimental group. These results suggest that the periodontal ligament fibroblasts cultured on the acellular dermal matrix may play a role in regenerating the periodontal ligament-like tissue with new cememtum-like tissue formation.