This present study was carried out to find the effects of calcium aluminate cement(CaO, Al2O3, CAC), which has been developed with bio-compatibility and mechanical properties, in biological environments. Two different particle sizes of CAC - 3.5micrometer vs. 212~250micrometer which is recommended in periodontal bone grafting procedures- were filled in 8mm calvarial defect in Sprague-Dawley rat. The specimens were examined histologically, especially the bone-cement interface and the response of surrounding tissues. The results are as follows; 1. In the control group, inflammatory cells were observed at 2 weeks. At 8 weeks, periosteum and dura mater were continuously joined together in the defect areas. But in the center of defect area were filled up with the loose connective tissues. 2. In the experimental group 1(212micrometer~250micrometer particle), immature bone was formed and outermost layer was surrounded by osteoid layer at 2 weeks. Osteoblasts were arranged between immature bone and osteoid layer. And, osteoid layer was remained until 8 weeks after surgery. 3. In the experimental group 2, periosteum and dura mater lost its continuity at 2 weeks. Scattering of CAC particles and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed, which this findings deepened at 8 weeks. The result of this study shows that when calvarial defects in white rats are filled with calcium aluminate cement of 212~250micrometer, the materials are to be bio-compatible in growth and healing on surrounding tissues. When further researches are fulfilled, such as direct bone adhesion and bone regeneration ability, it's possible that CAC could be applied to various periodontology fields in the future.