Cyclosporin A is a cyclic polypeptide produced by the metabolism of fungi. It is widely used at present as immunosuppressive treatment following organ transplants. It is also used to deal with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or type II diabetes. Gingival hyperplasia is one of the most frequent side-effects associated with the prescription of Cyclosporin A. The mechanisms involved in Cyclosporin A induced gingival hyperplasia are not yet clear. In vitro Cyclosporin A promotes proliferation of gingival fibroblasts, that Cyclosporin A act as a mitogen. Its action is based on mitosis of gingival fibroblasts regulated by cell cycle regulatory proteins. It was the purpose of the present study to examine the effects of Cyclosporin A on human gingival fibroblasts by means of biological and biochemical criteria. In this present study, we examined change of cell proliferation, cell activity, cell viability and cell cycle progression after application of Cyclosporin A. We also examined expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins by western blot analysis. Human gingival fibroblasts were cultured for 48 hours with application of Cyclosporin A at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/ml. Cyclosporin A(1 ng/ml) significantly increased the cell activity of gingival fibroblast. Proliferation and viability of gingival fibroblasts were also increased in group treated with 1 ng/ml of Cyclosporin A compared to control group. In the cell cycle analysis, S phase was increased and G1 phase was decreased in the group treated with 1 ng/ml of Cyclosporin A. Cyclosporin A increased the expression of cdk4 and inhibited the expression of pRB and p21. These results suggest that 1 ng/ml of Cyclosporin A may increase the cell cycle progression of human gingival fibroblasts, and its mechanisms may increase the expression of cdk4 and decrease the expression of pRB and p21.