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J Korean Acad Periodontol. 2000 Dec;30(4):821-834. Korean. Original Article.
Park MS , Chung CH , Lim SB .
Department of Periodontology, College of Dentisry, Dan-kook University, Korea.

The Peri-implantitis causes inflammation of periodontal tissue and bone loss. It contaminates surface of implants. Therefore, guided bone regeneration has been used for the treatment of this disease. For the reosseointegration of the exposed surface, various mechanical and chemical methods have been used for cleaning and detoxication of implant surface. Among these methods, air-powder abrasive and oversaturated citrate are known to be most effective. However, these treatments may deform implant surface. In this research, changes of surface roughness they were examined. 10 experimental machined titanium cylinder models were fabricated to be used for control groups. Each of them was air-powder abraded for 1 minute and they were named group 1. And then, group 1 were burnished with cotton pellets soaked with citrate for 30 seconds(Group 2), 1 minute(Group 3), 3 minutes(Group 4), and 5 minutes(Group 5) burnishing were applied for grouping respectively. Each group were examined with SPM, and their surface roughness were measured and analyzed. 1. Surface roughness of titanium decreased when it was air-powder abraded for 1 minute. It was statistically significant. 2. When Air-powder abraded titanium were treated with citrate for 3 minutes, Their surface roughness was the lowest. Titanium treated for 1 minute was the second lowest and 30 seconds was the third and titanium burnished for 5 minutes was the highest. 3. Surface roughness of titanium which was treated with citrate was decreased till 3 minutes, which was statistically significant. There was no statistical significance from 30 seconds to 1 minute and from 1 minute to 3 minutes, and there was statistical significance from 30 seconds to 3 minutes. 4. Oxide layer was formed when titanium is exposed to air, and it was removed when air-powder abraded. It was made when treated with citrate. It is thought that citrate treatment is necessary after the air-powder abrasion, and 1 minute is clinically and qualitatively adequate for burnishing time of citrate.

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