The aim of periodontal therapy is a removal of a bacterial plaque butthe instrumentation for plaque control has two nature : removal of a bacterial plaque and increase of surface roughness. Complication of instrumentation is enable to damage to the root surface and artificial crown. Therefore this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of repeated instrumentation on the marginal portion of artificial crown. Fifteen proximal surfaces of ten extracted periodontally diseased maxillary first molars were used. The finish line was placed on the root surface, and then the crown was casted and cemented in usual manner. Three kinds of instruments: hand curet, ultrasonic scaler, and ultrasonic curet were used. After instrumentation, final polishing was done with rubber cup and pumice. And surface changes were evaluated by stereomicroscope and scannig probe microscope. Roughness was increased after instrumentation in all groups, and was decreased after polishing except ultrasonic scaler group. Roughness in the ultrasonic scaler group was lower than others, and roughness after polishing in the hand curet group was lower than others. These results indicate that polishing procedure is recommended, because periodontalinstruments increase the surface roughness and induce the irreversible damage to the marginal portion.