Cyclosporine A(CsA) is a widely used immunosuppressant for transplant patients and is also used for the treatment of a wide variety of systemic diseases with immunologic disorders. However, its use is frequently limited because of complications such as nephrotoxicity or gingival hyperplasia. Although several hypotheses have been postulated for CsA-induced gingival hyperplasia, i.e. various cytokine effects of inflammatory cells, existence of plaque or CsA itself, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. For experimental chronic CsA toxicity, salt depletion has been shown to increased susceptibility of rodents to the effects of CsA, and this maneuver facilitates production of arteriolopathy and interstitial fibrosis in kidney that mimic the changes found in human. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pathogenesis of CsA-induced gingival hyperplasia by comparing changes between CsA administration groups of normal standard diet and those of low salt diet group. Specific pathogen-free, 20 to 25 days old(120 to 150 g), male Fisher-344 rats(KIST, Korea), 120 to 150g of body weight, were assigned to four groups of six animals each after one week of adaptation period for powder food. Group 1 received olive oil(300microliter/g of diet) with normal standard diet(0.4% of sodium)(NSD). Group 2 received CsA(Cypol-N, Jonggundang, Korea; 300microgram/g of diet) with normal standard diet(NSD+CsA). Group 3 received same amount of olive oil with low salt diet(0.05 % of sodium, Teklad Premier, U.S.A.)(LSD). Group 4 received same dose of CsA with low salt diet(LSD+CsA). Rats were pair fed and were sacrificed after six weeks. Renal histologic lesions associated with CsA, consisted of cortical interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy and hyalinization of arterioles and the impairment of renal function including increase of serum creatinine and decrease of glomerular filtration rate was more severe in low salt diet group. These were proved as the results of activated of renin-angiotensin system in the kidney by low salt condition. Meanwhile the degree of gingival hyperplasia at incisor and molar tooth was less severe in low salt diet group compared with normal sodium diet group. Hyperplastic gingiva showed mild epithelial hyperplasia and expanded underlyng stroma which consisted of matrix increasement, capillary proliferation and dilatation. While the number and the activation of fibroblasts were increased, inflammatory cells were rare in the stroma. The immunohistochemistry for TGF-beta1 in the kidney and gingiva revealed stronger positive in LSD+CsA in kidney but in gingiva of NSD+CsA. These results suggested followings; Gingival hyperplasia can be developed without inflammatory cells infiltration and seemed not induced by CsA by itself. The major role for gingival hyperplasia by CsA would be the secondary effect of TGF-beta, which maybe upregulated by CsA administration. Low salt diet can attenuate this hyperplasia perhaps by decreasing the activation of TGF-beta.