This study compared the short-term(4 months) clinical results of regenerative therapy with bioabsorbable membranes(BioMesh(R)) and bone allograft for the treatment of periodontal(intrabony and furcation) defects in smokers and non-smokers.(16 smokers) 32 subjects with 92 defects participated in the study(46 in smokers and 46 in non-smokers). This study also evaluated a bioresorbable barrier with and without decalcified freezedried bone allograft(DFDBA). The 92 periodontal defects were randomly treated with either the resorbable barrier alone or resorbable barrier in combination with DFDBA following thorough defect debridement and root preparation with tetracycline. Each patient received both types of treatment modalities. Clinical examinations(probing depth, gingival recession, clinical attachment level, plaque index and gingival index) were carried out immediately before and 4 months after surgery. Significant(p<0.001) gains in mean attachment level were observed for both smokers(2.93mm) and nonsmokers(3.30mm) but there were not significant difference between two groups. Similarly, significant reductions in mean probing depthshowed for smokers(4.52mm) and non-smokers(4.26mm). However, when comparing gingival recession, smokers were found to exhibit significantly poorer treatment results(1.59mm vs 0.96mm, p<0.05). Using the split-mouth-design, no statistically significant difference between the two modalities could be detected with regard to pocket depth reduction, gingival recession, or attachment gain. These results illustrate that the attachment gain is better in the non-smoker and the best in the non-smoker with the combination therapy of resorbable barrier and DFDBA than with resorbable barrier alone but smoking had no significant effect on clinical treatment outcome, even though smokers show more significant gingival recession. In addition, both treatments, either resorbable barrier plus DFDBA or resorbable barrier alone, promoted significant resolution of periodontal defects but the addition of DFDBA with a bioabsorbable membrane appears to add no extra benefit to the only membrane treatment.