Autogenous periosteal grafts are an attractive alternative to existing barrier membrane materials since they meet the reqiurements of an ideal material. But no histological data are available on the effectiveness of periosteal membranes in the treatment of periodontal defects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of autogenous periosteal graft on periodontal regeneration histologically. Class II furcation defects were surgically created on the second, third and the fourth premolars bilaterally in the mandibules of six mongrel dogs. The experimental sites were divided into three groups according to the treatment modalities; control group - surgical debridement only; Group I- autogenous periosteal membrane placement after surgical debridement; Group II- autogenous periosteal membrane placement after surgical debridement and bone grafting. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 12 weeks after periodontal surgery and the decalcified and undecalcified specimens were prepared for histological and histometrical analysis. Clinically all treated groups healed without significant problems. Under light microscope, at 2 weeks, control group showed significant apical epithelial migration and bone remodelling only below the notch area. But for the group I, II with autogenous periosteal graft, less apical migration of epithelium appeared and large amount of osteoid tissue showed above the notch area. Grafted periosteal membrane was indiscernable at 4 weeks, so periosteal membrane might be organized to surrounding tissues. Histometrically, at 4 and 12 weeks, all the test and control groups didn't show significant change of epithelial zone but new attachment level tended to be gained in the test groups than control group. These results suggest that autogenous periosteal grafts should be a good alternative for guided tissue regeneration.