The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of EDTA on diseased root surfaces with regard to the removal of the smear layer, exposure of dentinal tubule openings, and demineralization of the peritubular dentin. 20 periodontally involved single rooted teeth were used. After scaling and root planing, root conditioning was carried out with 3%, 17%, and 24% EDTA solution for 20 sec., 3 min., and 5 min. respectively. Then, the specimens were rinsed with tap water for 5 min. and processed for scanning electron microscopic observation. The following results were obtained. 1. In control group which was conditioned with cotton pellets soaked with saline for 3 min., the surface showed an amorphous irregular coating. The tubule orifices seemed to be compressed in the direction of the curette strokes. 2. In test group which was conditioned with EDTA solution, the number of opening dentinal tubules and the extent of the dentinal tubule opening increased with time irrespective of the concentration of EDTA solution. 3. In the group which was conditioned with EDTA solution for 20 sec., the smear layer was not completely removed. 4. If the time of root conditioning is above 3 min., collagen-like fibers covering the circum tubular dentin surface were shown even in the group which was conditioned with 3% EDTA solution. In conclusion, EDTA solution was a very effective root conditioning agent like low pH root conditioning agents which had various disadvantages. Therefore, using EDTA solution, more successful periodontal regeneration could be obtained.