On the basis of the evidences that electrical stimulation could enhance proliferation and differentiation of bone cells and promote healing and regeneration of bone, this study was performed to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation on human periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts in vitro, which also have important roles in regeneration of periodontium, and to evaluate the potential of clinical application of electrical stimulation. Human periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts were primarily cultured from the root surface of extracted premolar and the adjacent gingiva without periodontal diseases. In control group, the cells(5x10(4) cells/ml) were incubated only in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium contained with 10% fetal bovine serum. In test groups, electrical stimulation was given at the current intensity of 0.25micronA(test group 1), 1.0micronA(test group 2), and 2.5micronA(test group 3) for 12 hours to the same culture media with the control group. After 12 hour exposure of electrical stimulation, the cells were incubated for 2 and a half days(60 hours), and then each group of cells was analyzed for cell proliferation, protein level, and activity of alkaline phosphatase. The results were as follows ; 1.The Rate of cell proliferation of every test group increased significantly in both periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts, and in periodontal ligament cells, test group 3 showed significantly increased proliferation compared to the other test groups(p<0.05). 2.In the protein levels, neither periodontal ligament cell nor gingival fibroblast showed statistically significant differences between control and test groups. 3.The activity of alkaline phosphatase in periodontal ligament cells increased significantly in all test groups(p<0.05), but there were no significant differences between 3 test groups. In gingival fibroblasts, the activity of alkaline phosphatase increased significantly only in test group 3(p<0.05). From the above results, it is concluded that electrical stimulation may have beneficial effects on the regeneration of destructed periodontal tissue in regard of the stimulation of periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts as well as electrically stimulated bone formation that has been known, and that electrical stimulation may have the potential of clinical application.