PURPOSE: The presence of normal fingernail is important for the hand function and cosmetic appearance. We studied the results of the microsurgical reconstruction of the defected fingernail using composite toenail transfer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March of 2004 to May of 2009, eleven fingernails were reconstructed using microsurgical composite toenail transfer in 10 patients with a mean age of 27 years (range, 13 to 47 years). There were three thumbs, five index fingers, and three long fingers. Whole fingernail was destructed in three cases and remaining eight cases had partial nail defect. Toenail was grafted from great toe in eight cases and from second toe in three cases. Five cases were harvested as an osteoonychocutaneous flap, two as a endoosteoonychocutaneous flap and four as an onychocutaneous flap. RESULTS: All cases survived without any tissue necrosis. One arterial obstruction had occurred one day after surgery, which was resolved by repeated decompression and reanastomosis of the artery. All fingernails regenerated successfully. According to the rating system including assessment of shape, size and thickness of nail, nail pinch, pain, and patient's satisfaction, ten cases were rated as excellent and one as good. All patient's were satisfied with their hand function and appearance. CONCLUSION: Microsurgical composite toenail transfer can be an acceptable surgical reconstruction for the fingernail defect after trauma, providing satisfactory hand functions and cosmetic appearance.