PURPOSE: Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder have a range of causes. A problem exists in the selection of patients for surgery. This study examined the usefulness of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, suspected risk factors and plan of patients with gallbladder polyps. METHODS: This study examined 57 patients who underwent laparoscopy cholecystectomy with gallbladder polyps. All patients had been diagnosed preoperatively by ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography between October 2001 and October 2010. Preoperative radiologic diagnosis, age, gender, symptoms, size of polyps, number, concurrent gallstones and histological diagnosis of the polyps as well as the postoperative complications were reviewed retrospectively. The operation indications were polyps >10 mm, age above 55 years, symptomatic polyps, coincidence of a stone, focal thickening of gallbladder wall and detection during other operations. RESULTS: The number of each type of polyp lesion of the gallbladder was as follows: 26 cases (45.6%) had cholesterol polyps, 2 cases (3.6%) inflammatory polyps, 1 case (1.7%) mucosal lymphoid follicles, 12 cases (21.1%) adenomatous polyps, 1 case (1.7%) adenocarcinoma. Non-neoplastic and neoplastic polyps accounted for 50.9% and 22.8%, respectively. Forty-eight cases had an accepted operative indication and underwent surgery. The nine other cases also underwent surgery. Among those with operative indications, 27.1% had neoplastic polyps. Of the patients who had non-indication operative surgery or polyps <5 mm in size, there were non neoplastic polyps in any cases. Two of the patients developed complications; wound infection (1 case), and common bile duct obstruction (1 case). CONCLUSION: Observation and careful surgery is necessary for patients with polyps <5 mm in size, and who do not have accepted operative indications. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be considered an adequate treatment for patients with accepted operative indications.