Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a most common cause of vertigo. Although endolymphatic flow which is caused by movement of detached-otoconia from otolithic organs has been suggested as a cause of positional vertigo, none has proved it in the human inner ear. Therefore, there were many trials to explain the anatomical characteristics of cupula, physiology of cupula deviation, pathologic mechanisms of BPPV, and clinical characteristics of BPPV using animal membranous labyrinth. In this review, results of basic animal experimental studies to understand anatomical structures and pathological mechanisms related to BPPV are introduced. In addition, future directions for experimental studies to elucidate the mechanism of BPPV will be suggested.