BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the localizations of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (ARs) in rat vestibular nuclei by immunohistochemical staining procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Primary antibodies for the beta1- and beta2-ARs were used. The sections were treated with a biotinylated goat anti-rabbit antibody. The sections were then incubated in avidin-biotin-peroxidase reagent and processed with immunoperoxidase using 3.3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride. RESULTS: beta1-AR and beta2-AR immunopositive neurons were found to be distributed throughout the four major vestibular nuclei. Both receptors were primarily detected in neuronal somata and their proximal dendrites. beta1-AR and beta2-AR were moderately expressed in the superior vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus, and spinal vestibular nucleus. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that beta1-AR and beta2-AR receptors are localized in rat vestibular nuclei. Furthermore, this study may provide additional speculation into the role of ARs during vestibular signal processing. Further studies are needed to clarify the roles played by beta1-ARs and beta2-ARs through physiologic and functional studies.