PURPOSE: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the most important complications of pesticide intoxication. It affects a patient's clinical prognosis and can cause acute renal failure. It is important that patients diagnosed with pesticide intoxication receive an accurate initial diagnosis and proper treatment to prevent significant complications. This study's objective was to investigate and confirm related factors causing acute renal failure by verifying clinical observations and laboratory findings collected following pesticide intoxication. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was made of 734 patients who presenting to our emergency medical center after ingesting pesticides between January 2006 and December 2008. Of these, 513 patients were selected for the study. Two hundred and twenty-one patients were excluded because of paraquat intoxication, age (if under 18), or chronic renal failure. Seventy-four patients were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis, based on serum creatinine phosphokinase levels were >1,000 U/L. Acute renal failure was diagnosed when creatinine levels were > 2.0 mg/dL. RESULTS: Among the 74 patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis, 26 (35.1%) experienced acute renal failure. The most meaningful related factor in the prediction of acute renal failure was initial arterial pH and creatinine level. CONCLUSION: Initial arterial pH and creatinine level are predictors of complications such as acute renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis.