In 2017, external quality assessment trials for urinalysis and fecal occult blood (FOB) were performed with 1,544 participants. Urine chemistry tests were performed three times and urine sediment and FOB tests were evaluated 2 times. Urine chemistry tests consisted of pH, protein, glucose, ketone, bilirubin, blood, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte, and specific gravity analyses. The results of the urine chemistry and specific gravity tests showed accuracy rates >95%. The accuracy rate of urine sediments was low, especially for fat droplets and atypical uric acid crystals. In the FOB quality test, all reagents showed accuracy rates >82%, which suggested the persistent improvement of false-positive reactions. In the FOB quantitative test, discrepant results depending on the instrument used were observed. To compensate for the result differences caused by the amounts of stool samples, the results should be reported using another unit (µg/g of stool).