Gut hormones are important in modulating appetite, energy expenditure, glucose and lipid homeostasis, and various metabolic functions in response to food ingestion. Metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity, lead to abnormal responses of gut hormones in enteroendocrine cells. Therefore, gut hormones are proposed as new therapeutic targets for prevention and management of metabolic disorders. Diet composition, nutrients, non-nutritional components, and physical properties of food determine the responses of gut hormones through modulating its secretion and transcription and differentiation of enteroendocrine cells. In the last few years, the introduction of new experimental techniques and increasing trend of clinical trial enable us to understand the specific mechanisms or sensing machinery that respond to the diet. The present article reviews the current knowledge concerning dietary effects on the secretion of gut hormones and interactions with enteroendocrine cells.