A rapid increase in the rates of osteoporosis and fractures has been predicted with the increasing aging population in Korea. To achieve optimum bone health, nutrition plays an important role in maximizing bone mass and bone mineral density during peak bone accretion and also delays bone loss later in life. Adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D are essential throughout the life cycle to maintain bone health and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Most Korean diets do not satisfy the DRI for calcium nor for vitamin D and potassium intake also falls short of the recommended amount. Calcium, vitamin D, and potassium are important for bone health, although they are often insufficient in Korean diet. The current Korean DRI for vitamin D intake (AI) in people aged 1~18 years is 5 microg/d (200 IU/d), and the current Korean DRI for calcium and vitamin D intake in people aged > 50 years are 700 mg/d and 10 microg/d (400 IU/d), respectively. However, higher intake of calcium and vitamin D (age > or = 50 y, age 1~18 y) may actually be required for optimal bone health. Fruits and vegetables are important sources of potassium. There is a need to emphasize the importance between an adequate diet and bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Overall dietary pattern, diet quality, and the ratio of each nutrient can affect bone health. Future studies should be conducted on nutrient ratio, whole foods, dietary patterns and their relationship to bone metabolism and fracture risk.