PURPOSE: We compared the results of arthroscopic Bankart repair using metal and biodegradable anchor fixation. MATERIALS & METHODS: We reviewed 26 patients with anterior shoulder instability treated by arthroscopic Bankart repair from October, 2006, to March, 2007, 15 patients with metal anchors and 11 patients with biodegradable anchors. The average age was 27.4 years old (range: 17~55) and mean follow-up was 14 months (range: 12~17 months). Functional outcome was evaluated using the Korean Shoulder Score for Instability (KSSI), Rowe's Bankart Grading scale (RBGS), ASES score, and UCLA scores. RESULTS: In the metal-anchor group, the improvements of mean KSSI, ASES, UCLA score, and RBGS were 20.6, 24.0, 4.0, and 45.5, respectively. In the biodegradable anchor group, improvements of mean KSSI, ASES, UCLA score, and RBGS were 21.0, 23.6, 4.6, and 48.9. The improvements in final outcomes were not significantly different (p>.05). One metal problem and one traumatic redislocation occurred in the metal group. CONCLUSION: Both techniques produced satisfactory outcomes in the treatment of traumatic anterior instability. The biodegradable anchor group could also avoid problems with metal anchors.