PURPOSE: Numerous experimental studies have shown the benefits of treating thermal burns by cooling. Nevertheless, few studies have shown the clinical effect of cooling therapy on thermal burns. This study aimed to identify the clinical effect of immediate cooling therapy. METHODS: The research was conducted as a retrospective, case-control study. All patients had thermal injuries characterized as a superficial second-degree burn. In the cooling group, 14 patients had first-aid cooling therapy delivered by either parents, caregivers, general practitioners, local hospitals, and/or Myongji hospital. Included in the study were 22 control patients who were not treated with any cooling therapies. Other clinical factors, such as age, sex, cause of burn injury, and burn area (Total Body Surface Area %), were taken into consideration. The duration of treatment was defined as the time from the occurrence of the injury to the presence of complete re-epithelialization, as confirmed by two surgeons. RESULTS: The duration of treatment in the cooling group was significantly less than that the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cooling therapy as an initial emergent treatment is clinically effective for superficial seconddegree burn injuries.