OBJECTIVES: It was the aim to examine the association of the thyroid-related hormones with cognitive function, depression, and subjective memory impairment in community-dwelling elders with questionable dementia. METHODS: The sample consisted of 399 community residents with 'questionable dementia' aged 60 or over in whom serum thyroid-related hormones [thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine] had been assayed. Cognitive impairment was defined using the Korean version of the Consortium Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease. Depression was diagnosed using the Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale and subjective memory complaint (SMC) was checked using the subjective memory complaints questionnaire (SMCQ). Age, gender, education, and the presence of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 were included as covariates. RESULTS: There was a significant positive association between verbal fluency test (VFT) score and serum TSH levels (p = 0.01). There was a significant negative association between SMCQ total score and word list memory test (WLMT)(p = 0.002) or word list recall test (WLRT) score (p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Lower serum TSH levels were associated with semantic memory (VFT), and we found that SMC was associated with episodic memory (WLMT and WLRT) in this sample.