Anxiety disorders are characterized by dysregulation of neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter and neuroanatomical functions. Substantial advances in research method offered new insights into the neurobiologic mechanisms in anxiety disorders. Advances in molecular biology have enabled illumination of hormone and neurotransmitters that have important roles in anxiety. The neuroanatomic circuits related to anxiety are also being elucidated by improvements in neuroimaging technology such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging. This article reviews the research data in relation to the neurobiology underlying fear and pathologic anxiety and discusses their implications for development of biological treatments for anxiety disorders.