Glutamate receptors are important components of synaptic transmission in the nervous system. Especially, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors mediate most abundant excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. There is elaborate mechanism of regulation of AMPA receptors including protein synthesis/degradation, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis/endocytosis and protein modification. In recent studies, it is revealed that functional dysregulation of AMPA receptors are related to major psychiatric disorders. In this review, we describe the structure and function of AMPA receptors in the synapse. We will introduce three steps of mechanism involving trafficking of AMPA receptors to neuronal membrane, lateral diffusion into synapses and synaptic retention by membrane proteins and postsynaptic scaffold proteins. Lastly, we will describe recent studies showing that regulation of AMPA receptors is important pathophysiological mechanism in psychiatric disorders.