OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess variations in caudate volume according to dopamin receptor D2/ankyin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (DRD2/ANKK1) Taq 1a polymorphisms in young healthy adults and to evaluate the relationship between caudate volumes and psychiatric symptoms as measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. METHODS: Genetic information regarding DRD2/ANKK1 Taq 1a and T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance images were acquired from 30 young healthy adults. Automatic segmentation of caudate was performed using the FreeSurfer program. RESULTS: Individuals with A2 homozygotes of DRD2/ANKK1 Taq 1a polymorphisms (n = 10) had greater right caudate volumes compared to those with A1 allele (s)(18.4% greater ; p = 0.019). Right caudate volumes were negatively associated with total scores of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (beta=-0.50 ; p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the possibility that DRD2/ANKK1 Taq 1a polymorphisms may underlie the psychiatric symptoms by influencing the structure of the right caudate.