In medicine, general clinical practice moves in the direction of early detection and intervention for the prevention of progressive disease. In psychiatry, research in subjects with the risk syndrome for psychosis, has been conducted for the prevention of schizophrenia, known as a devastating chronic disease. The inclusion of 'attenuated psychosis syndrome', based on the results of early intervention studies, is one of the major issues in the upcoming DSM-V. Further investigations are needed to find biological markers and endophenotypes to supplement the diagnostic criteria. In the future, adoption of clinical staging is promising to overcome the shortcoming of current diagnosis of schizophrenia. In clinical practice, more concerns are needed about attenuated psychotic symptoms which might be risk signals for the transition to psychosis.