OBJECTIVES: Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), one of potent cytokines, and its receptors were related with various biological functions and pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of serum level of free VEGF, soluble VEGFR-1, and soluble VEGFR-2 after treatment with atypical antipsychotic drug in schizophrenia. METHOD: The schizophrenic patients were diagnosed with DSM-IV and were prospectively followed up for 4 and 8 weeks. Thirteen schizophrenic patients were evaluated their clinical assessment with serum levels of free VEGF, sVEGFR-1, sVEGFR-2, and positive and negative symptom scale(PANSS) at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment with atypical antipsychotic drug. Thirteen normal control subjects were recruited and matched with the patient group by age and sex. RESULT: The serum level of free VEGF(295.2+/-43.7pg/ml)and sVEGFR-2(8259+/-336.7) at baseline(before treatment) in schizophrenic patients were not significantly different, compared with the control group(199.0+/-28.8 and 8481+/-371.9) respectively. However, the serum level of sVEGFR-1(86.2+/-10.3, p<0.05) was significantly increased in the schizophrenic patients compared with the control group(59.0+/-6.4). After treatment with antipsychotic drug, the serum levels of free VEGF at 4 weeks(338.9+/-56.5) and 8 weeks(309.5+/-58.7) were not significantly, different compared with baseline. But the serum levels of sVEGFR-1 was significantly decreased at 8 weeks(57.3+/-6.3, p<0.05) after antipsychotic drug treatment. The serum levels of sVEGFR-2 were decreased at 4 weeks(7761+/-403.0, p<0.05) and 8 weeks(7435+/-333.5, p<0.05) compared with baseline. CONCLUSION: The decreased serum level of sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 might be affected by dopaminergic system which was influenced by antipsychotic drug.