OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder, affecting 3-5% of school-aged children. Although the biological basis of ADHD is unknown, family studies provide strong evidence that ADHD has a genetic basis. Recent genetic studies have suggested associations between ADHD and serotonin 1B(5HT1B) receptor gene G861C polymorphism. The aim of this study is to test for the association between ADHD and 5HT1B receptor gene G861C polymorphism in Korean population. METHOD: We processed DNA extraction and genotyping. 106 Korean children with ADHD and their parents were analyzed using the transmission disequilibrium test(TDT) and haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR). And the ADHD children were compared with 212 age and gender matched normal controls. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference of distributions between ADHD cases and controls. We did not observe any preferential transmission of alleles of 5HT1B receptor gene G861C polymorphism in ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: Though there is the possibility of failing to detect small genetic effects, our results show no evidence of an association between ADHD and 5HT1B receptor gene G861C polymorphism in the Korean population and indicate that it is unlikely that the 5HT1B receptor is implicated in the susceptibility to ADHD.