For the study the effects of X -ray irradiation on the development of lens and interactions between optic vesicle and lens, 200 rads X -ray irradiated to the preganat rats (Sprague -Dawley strain) on gestation day 9.5. The rats were sacrificed daily from the gestation day 10.5 to 17.5, and investigated the development of lens with light microscope. The results were as follows; 1. The survival rate of X -irradiated rat fetuses was decreased significantly compared with that of the control group. 2. The mean body weight of the X -irradiated rat fetuses was decreased significantly compared with that of the control group. 3. The congenital anomalies of the eye in the rat fetuses after X -irradiation were anophthalmia, congenital aphakia, lens aplasia, lens luxation, and coloboma of the retina. 4. The critical period of lens development of the Sprague -Dawley rats was considered from GD 9. 5 to GD 10.0. 5. In the X -irradiated rat fetuses on gestation day 9.5, optic vesicle did not developed, but lens developed independently , and moved deeply toward the forebrain vesicle. According to above results, it could be concluded that the development of lens from surface ectoderm might be independent from the inductive influence of optic vesicle, and the movement of lens toward the forebrain vesicle could be mediated by chemotactic factors secreted from the brain vesicle. Further studies are needed to reveal the mechanisms of lens development and interaction between lens and brain vesicle.