This study was performed to investigate the subcellular changes of rat atrial muscle cells by immobilization stress. Sprague -Dawley rats weighting 200 gm were immobilized in small round plastic tube for 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours respectively. The atrial tissue obtained from each animals were observed by transmission electron microscopes. In the heart of rat subjected 2 hours immobilization stress no significant morphological changes were found in electron microscopy, similarly as in control animal. After 6 and 12 hours immobilization stress, the following electron -microscopic changes of atrial myocytes were observed at the swelling of mitochondrial matrix with disturbance in cristea, focal loss of cytoplasmic matrix, vacuoles with myeline -like structure, apoptotic changes of myocytes, focal widening of intercalated disc interspace and lysis of myofibrils. After 24 hours immobilization stress, very small sized mitochondria, similarly as small sized secretory granules and various sized granules are observed in the perinuclear region of atrial myocytes. Atrial specific granules are moved centripetally toward the central region of the atrial myocytes after immobilization stress. Above results will be aid in understanding the structures of atrium with dual function of blood circulation and endocrine, and in research of modulation of secretory granules in atrial muscle cells.