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Korean J Community Nutr. 2001 Feb;6(1):51-68. Korean. Original Article.
Kim JC , Wee HJ .
Clinical Nutrition and Research in Health Promotion Center of Samsung Medical Center Seoul, Korea.

This investigation studied the relationship between Body Mass Index(BMI) and dietary intake, levels of serum lipid, lipoprotein(a) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) of 28.449 Korean adults(16.937 men, 11.542 women) from 1995 to 1999. The dietary assessment was conducted using 24-hour dietary records and food frequency questionnaires. During this five year study, the BMI normal-weight group, as a percentage of the annual test population, decreased from 68.0% to 60.2%, while the BMI overweight and obese groups collectively increased from 25.0% to 29.7%. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol(LDL-C), Triacylglycerol(TG) and PAI-1 increased as the values of BMI increased, while the levels of HDL-cholesterol(HDL-C) and lipoprotein(a)(men only) appeared to decrease as values of BMI increased. The levels of daily energy intake also increased as values of BMI increased in both men and women. The obese group had significantly higher levels of carbohydrate, protein, fat(men only), and cholesterol intake than those of the normal-weight, underweight, and overweight groups. In men, BMI positively correlated with the levels of macronutrients and cholesterol intake(p<0.001), % energy of protein, fat, and alcohol intake(p<0.001), and the levels of serum TC, LDL-C, TG and PAI-1(p<0.001), while BMI negatively correlated with % energy of carbohydrate intake, and the levels of Lp(a) and HDL-C(p<0.001). In women, BMI negatively correlated with level of cholesterol(p<0.01), fat(p<0.001), alcohol intake(p<0.05),% energy of fat (p<0.001), % energy of alcohol intake and level of and HDL-C(p<0.001). Subjects who had serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG levels greater than the standard reference values(TC>240 mg/dl, LDL-C>130 mg/dl, HDL-C>35, TG>200 mg/dl) exhibited a higher intake of the three macronutrients, iron, calcium, meat, milk and fatty foods than those subjects who had serum lipid concentrations less-than-or-equal-to the standard reference values. Overall, there was positive correlation between the high risk factors of vascular disease variables, dietary intake, and BMI. Prevalence of hypertension and high blood sugar were increased as BMI increased, but the prevalence of hypertension is decreased as the year goes by. These findings showed that dietary intake, level of serum lipids and other vascular disease risk factors increased as BIM increased. Therefore, middle or upper class Korean adults who have high BMI should improve their eating habits. This involve reducing alcohol, animal fat, high carbohydrate foods, and overall food intake, and balancing intake in order to lower vascular disease risk factors, including obesity.

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