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Korean J Community Nutr. 2000 Jul;5(2):161-171. Korean. Original Article.
Kwak CS , Lee JW , Hyun WJ .
WHO Collaborating Centre of physical Culture and Aging Research for health Promotion, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Consumer's Life Information, Chungnam National University, Daejon, Korea.
Department of Food and Nutrition, joongbu University, Kumsan, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of smoking and/or alcohol drinking on the nutrient intake, nutritional status, and eating habits of adult males. The subjects were 157 male adults aged 20-49 living in Daejon. Interviews with questionaire on smoking and alcohol drinking habits and eating habits, anthropometric measurement, biochemical blood test, and dietary assessment by one-day 24 hour recall and two-day diet record were carried out. The subjects were divided into four groups : control (non-smoking and non-drinking), drinking only, smoking only, and the both(drinking and smoking). The average numbers of smoked cigarettes were 17.8/d and 19.1/d in the smoking only group and the both group, respectively. The frequency of alcohol drinking was 8.3 times/month and 11.6 times/month in the drinking only group and the both group, respectively. Height was significantly higher(P 0.05) in the drinking only group than in the none and smoking only groups, while the other anthropometric indices were not different among the four groups. There were positive correlations between smoking and drinking or coffee intake. Alcohol drinking increased eating-out frequency and the intakes of energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, B1, B/sub 6/, Fe and P, while smoking decreased snack frequency and intakes of energy, protein and vitamin B/sub 6/. Blood pressure was not changed in the smoking only and drinking only groups compared to the none group, while systolic blood pressure was elevated in both group(P 0.05). Alcohol drinking significantly elevated(P 0.05) serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholestrol level, while smoking did not change the serum lipid and cholesterol levels. Hemoglobin nd MCHC levels were significantly elevated(P 0.05) by smoking. From these data, it is suggested that both smoking and drinking have influence on some eating habits and nutrient intakes, and especially alcohol drinking can induce hypercholesterolemia.

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