BACKGROUND: The female genital tract is equipped to deal with a variety of foreign substances including a wide array of microorganisms. It is important to consider Candida-bacterial interactions in balance between healthy colonization versus vaginitis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the association between microorganism distribution and vaginitis, and to investigate the possibility of an interaction between vaginal Candida and other microorganisms in female genital tract. METHODS: A total of 516 vaginal secretions were collected between October 2008 and June 2010 from patients with suspected vaginitis. Identification of Candida species and detection of 6 fastidious microorganisms (Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum) were performed using a VITEK 2 system (bioMerieux, Inc., Hazelwood, MO, USA) and multiplex PCR (Seegene, Biotechnology, Inc., Seoul, Korea), respectively. RESULTS: M. genitalium, U. urealyticum, and C. trachomatis were more often detected in association with vaginal candidiasis. A statistically significant association between Candida and M. genitalium was observed (P<0.05). N. gonorrhoeae was detected less often in women with vaginal candidiasis. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest the possibility that vaginal Candida may associate with some microorganisms in patients with vaginitis. Further studies will be required to define the Candida-bacterial interactions and its mechanisms.