This paper reviews previous studies on the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in elderly patients to determine what factors should be considered for successful treatment. In osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, the primary treatment is conservative treatments. Other treatments include osteoporosis treatment, pain control, orthosis, and physical therapy. Recently, percutaneous catheterization or balloon plasty is performed for rapid pain recovery and early ambulation. Percutaneous catheterization or balloon posterior plasty is effective in reducing pain and improving the activity ability. Surgical treatment should be considered in cases of nonunion or osteonecrosis, dent, deformation, and spinal cord compression after conservative treatment has failed. In surgical treatment, posterior spinal fixation and vertebroplasty are more advantageous in terms of the amount of bleeding, operation time compared to the anterior approach, but the most appropriate method should be selected through the patient's condition and understanding of each surgical method.