Data accumulated over the past four decades have dispelled the long-held dogma that the adult mammalian brain cannot generate new neurons. Although neurogenesis, the birth of new neurons, is confined largely to the embryonic period, accumulating evidence indicates that certain germinative zones persist throughout life and continue to generate neurons and glia in specific brain regions. Although limited knowledge exists regarding the normal function of neurogenesis in the adult and its alteration by brain injury, the persistence of neurogenesis suggests that the mature brain maintains an even greater potential for plasticity after injury than previously recognized. Underlining the idea are recent reports that seizures induced by various experimental manipulations increase neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain. Studies of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in the adult rodent epilepsy models suggest that seizure-induced neurogenesis involves aberrant neuroblast migration and integration that may contribute to abnormal hyperexcitability. The presence of endogenous neural progenitors in other proliferative regions, however, may offer potential strategies for the development of antiepileptogenic or neuronal replacement therapies. The effects of seizure-induced neurogenesis in the epileptic brain, in terms of either a pathological or reparative role, are only beginning to be investigated.